• Wilson D.S., Geher G., Mativetsky H., & Gallup A.C. (2019). Darwin’s Roadmap to the Curriculum: Evolutionary Studies in Higher Education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Articles and Book Chapters


  • Gallup, A.C. (in press). Seeing others yawn selectively enhances vigilance: a conceptual replication. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences.
  • Gallup, A.C. (in press). On the link between rapid eye movement sleep and yawning. Sleep and Breathing.
  • Eldakar, O.T., & Gallup, A.C. (in press). Winner and loser effects. In T.K. Shackelford & G. Vance (Eds.), Springer Nature Encyclopedia of Sexual Psychology and Behavior. New York, NY: Springer Nature.
  • Massen J.J.M., & Gallup A.C. (2023) The evidence does not support long-term oxygenation as a functional explanation for the evolution of yawning. Sleep and Breathing 27, 679-682.
  • Gallup A.C., & Wozny, S.M. (2023) The role of empathic concern and gender on interspecific contagious yawning in humans. Animals 13, 1700.


  • Gallup, A.C. (2022). An undergraduate minor in Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences. EvoS Journal 9, 64-70.
  • Gallup, A.C., & Wozny, S. (2022). Interspecific contagious yawning in humans. Animals 12, 1908.
  • Gallup, A.C. (2022). Do humans possess a superior location memory for snakes? Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science 13, 33-39.
  • Gallup, A.C., Schild, A.B., Ühlein, M.A., Bugynar, T., & Massen, J.J.M. (2022). No evidence for contagious yawning in juvenile ravens (Corvus corax): an observational study. Animals 12, 1357.
  • Brown, M., Snowden, S., & Gallup, A.C. (2022). Cover your mouth! Disease avoidance predicts the stigmatization of yawning. Personality and Individual Differences 195, 111695.
  • Gallup A.C. (2022). The causes and consequences of yawning in animal groups. Animal Behavior 187, 209-219.
  • Eldakar O.T., Buckwold, N., & Gallup A.C. (2022). Carpe diem: winner and loser effects are constrained to same-day competitions in collegiate baseball. Journal of Ethology 40, 97-101.


  • Gallup A.C., Kret M., Eldakar O.T., Folz, J. & Massen J.J.M. (2021). People that score high on psychopathic traits are less likely to yawn contagiously. Scientific Reports 11, 23779.
  • Gallup A.C., & Meyers K. (2021). Seeing others yawn selectively enhances vigilance: an eye-tracking study of snake detection. Animal Cognition 24, 583-392.
  • Gallup A.C., Gagnon B., Perry, G., & Eldakar O.T. (2021). Acetaminophen potentiates fear processing: a comparison between ancestral and modern threats. Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science 12, 18-23.
  • Massen J.J.M., Hartlieb M., Martin J.S., Leitgeb E., Bugnyar T., Hockl J., Kocourek M., Olkowicz S., Osadnik C., Verkleij J.W., Zhang Y., Němec P., & Gallup A.C. (2021). Brain size and neuron numbers drive differences in yawn duration across mammals and birds. Communications Biology 4, 503.
  • Gallup A.C., & Sleicher E. (2021). Left-hand advantage and the right-sided selection hypothesis. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences 15, 184-190.
  • Gallup A.C., & Deaner R.O. (2021). A Darwinian approach to the study of sports, games, and athletics. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences 15, 89-90.
  • Gallup A.C. (2021). On the link between emotional contagion and contagious yawning. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 121, 18-19.


  • Barber P.H., Hayes T.B., Márquez-Magaña L., & 10,234 signatories (2020). Systemic racism in higher education. Science 369, 440-441.
  • Gallup A.C., & Gallup Jr. G.G. (2020). Methylphenidate-induced yawning: a thermoregulatory connection. American Journal of Therapuetics 27, e527-2528.
  • Gallup A.C. (2020). Chewing on gum alleviates bouts of excessive yawning: two case studies. Human Ethology 35, 67-74.
  • Gallup A.C. (2020). Contagious yawning as a cure for hiccups. Journal of Brief Ideas doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3951203.
  • Gallup A.C., Moscatello L., & Massen J.J.M. (2020). Brain weight predicts yawn duration across domesticated dog breeds. Current Zoology 66, 401-405.
  • Gallup A.C., Gagnon B.K.L., Rosic B., & Eldakar O.T. (2020). Acetaminophen does not alter the early processing of emotional facial expressions: an eye-tracking study. EvoS Journal 11, 34-45.
  • Gallup A.C., & Massen J.J.M. (2020). Intranasal oxytocin, empathy, and contagious yawning in dogs and humans. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 224, 104971.


  • Gallup A.C., & Engert K. (2019). Chewing on gum alters the expression of contagious yawning. Human Ethology 34, 93-103.
  • Ramirez V., Ryan C.P., Eldakar O.T., & Gallup A.C. (2019). Manipulating neck temperature alters contagious yawning in humans. Physiology & Behavior 207, 86-89.
  • Geher G., Wilson D.S., Gallup A.C., Mativtsky H., & Holler R.H. (2019). Darwin-inspired curricula: the EvoS revolution in higher education. In D.S. Wilson, G. Geher, H. Mativtsky, & A.C. Gallup (Eds.), Darwin’s Roadmap to the Curriculum: Evolutionary Studies in Higher Education (pp. 463-468). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Wilson D.S., Geher G., Gallup A.C., & Mativtsky H. (in press). Teaching evolution across the curriculum: beyond campus-wide programs. In D.S. Wilson, G. Geher, H. Mativtsky, & A.C. Gallup (Eds.), Darwin’s Roadmap to the Curriculum: Evolutionary Studies in Higher Education (pp. 3-12). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Gallup A.C. (2019). Over-the-counter painkillers and evolutionary mismatch. Frontiers in Evolutionary Psychology 10, 686.
  • Gallup A.C., Pietruch K., Eldakar O.T. (2019). Plasticity of mating duration in response to slightly biased operational sex ratios in the water strider (Aquaris remigis): the effect of cohabitation under standard laboratory conditions. Frontiers in Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology 7, 75.
  • Gallup A.C., Vasilyev D., Anderson N., & Kingstone A. (2019). Contagious yawning in virtual reality is affected by actual, but not simulated, social preference. Nature Scientific Reports 9, 294.


  • Ripp J., Eldakar O.T., Gallup A.C., & Arena P. (2018). The successful exploitation of urban environments by the spider Nephila clavipes (Araneae Nephilidae). Journal of Urban Ecology 4, 294.
  • Eldakar O.T., Kammeyer J.O., Nagabandi N., & Gallup A.C. (2018). Hypocrisy and corruption: how disparities in power shape the evolution of social control. Evolutionary Psychology 16, 1-12.
  • Gallup A.C. & Fink B. (2018). Handgrip strength as a Darwinian fitness indicator in men. Frontiers in Evolutionary Psychology 9, 439.
  • Bielert C.F., Costo N., & Gallup A.C. (2018). Tuskedness in African Elephants–An anatomical investigation of laterality. Journal of Zoology 304, 169-174. [journal impact factor: 1.955]
  • Gallup A.C., Eldakar O.T., Schonning M., & Yanchus M. (2018). Winner and loser effects in collegiate baseball and softball doubleheaders. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology 4, 108-120.
  • Bielert, C.F., & Gallup, A.C. (2018). Book Review: “Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst” by Robert M. Sapolosky, Penguin Press, New York, 2017. ISBN: 9781594205071. The Quarterly Review of Biology 93, 37-38.


  • Gallup A.C., Herron E., Militello J., Swartwood L., Cortes C., & Equibar J.R. (2017). Thermal imaging reveals sizeable changes in maximum facial temperature surrounding yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Temperature 4, 429-435.
  • Gallup A.C., Crowe B., & Yanchus M. (2017). Yawn duration predicts brain size in wild cats (Felidae). International Journal of Comparative Psychology 30.
  • Gallup A.C., & Eldakar O.T. (2017). Yawns are cool. Frontiers for Young Minds 5, 52.
  • Massen J.J.M., & Gallup A.C. (2017). Why contagious yawning does not (yet) equate to empathy. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 80, 573-585.
  • Gallup A.C. (2017). Adolescent peer aggression and female reproductive competition. In M.A. Fisher (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Women and Competition (pp. 89-106). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Eldakar O.T., Tartar J., Garcia D., Ramirez V. , Dauzonne M., Armani Y., & Gallup A.C. (2017). Acute physical stress modulates the temporal expression of yawning in humans. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology 3, 156-170.
  • Gallup A.C., Militello J., Sackett S., & Swartwood L. (2017). Experimental evidence of contagious stretching and ingroup bias in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 131, 69-72.
  • Eguibar J.R., Uribe C.A., Cortes C. Bautista A., & Gallup A.C. (2017). Yawning reduces facial temperature in the high-yawning subline of Sprague-Dawley rats. BMC Neuroscience 18, 3.


  • Gallup A.C., Church A., & Pelegrino A.J. (2016). Yawn duration predicts brain weight and cortical neuron number in mammals. Biology Letters 12, 20160545.
  • Gallup, A.C., & Gallup, G.G. (2016). Handgrip strength and semen quality. Journal of Brief Ideas doi: 10.5281/zenodo.57460.
  • Gallup A.C., & Massen J.J.M. (2016). There is no difference in contagious yawning between men and women. Royal Society Open Science 3, 160174.
  • Massen J.J.M., Šlipogor V., & Gallup A.C. (2016). An observational investigation of behavioural contagion in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): indications for contagious scent-marking. Frontiers in Comparative Psychology 7, 1190.
  • Eldakar, O.T., & Gallup, A.C. (2016). Adaptive myopia: how nearsightedness on land helps us underwater. Journal of Brief Ideas doi: 10.5281/zenodo.54735.
  • Gallup A.C., Church A., Miller H., Risko E., & Kingstone A. (2016). Social presence diminishes contagious yawning in the laboratory. Scientific Reports 6, 25045.
  • Gallup A.C. (2016). Ambient temperature modulates yawning. Temperature 3(1) 23-24.
  • Bielert, C.F., & Gallup, A.C. (2016). Book Review: “Governing Behavior: How Nerve Cell Dictatorships & Democracies Control Everything We Do” by Ari Berkowitz, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2016. ISBN: 0674736907. The Quarterly Review of Biology 91, 511.


  • Massen J.J.M., Church A., & Gallup A.C., (2015). Auditory contagious yawning in humans: an investigation into affiliation and status effects. Frontiers in Evolutionary Psychology and Neuroscience 6, 1735.
  • Bielert C., & Gallup A.C. (2015). A clarion call or a swan song? Commentary: “A crisis in comparative psychology: where have all the undergraduates gone? Frontiers in Comparative Psychology 6, 1867.
  • Gallup A.C., & Clark A.B. (2015). Commentary “Yawning, acute stressors and arousal reduction in Nazca booby adults and nestlings”. Frontiers in Comparative Psychology 6, 1654
  • Gallup A.C., & Church A. (2015). The effects of intranasal oxytocin on contagious yawning. Neuroscience Letters 607, 13-16.
  • Eldakar O.T., Dauzonne M., Prilutzkaya Y., Garcia D., Thadal C., & Gallup A.C. (2015). Temperature-dependent variation in self-reported contagious yawning. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology 1(4), 460-466.
  • Gallup A.C., Swartwood L., Militello J., & Sackett S. (2015). Experimental evidence of contagious yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Animal Cognition 18, 1051-1058.
  • Levine, S., & Gallup, A.C. (2015). Integrating first-person narratives of eminent psychologists in an introductory course. In W. Altman, L. Stein, & J. R. Stowell (Eds.), Essays from E-xcellence in Teaching (Vol. 14, pp. 28-31).


  • Gallup A.C., & Eldakar O.T. (2014). Winner and loser effects in Major League Baseball double-headers. Human Ethology Bulletin 29(4), 18-27.
  • Eldakar O.T., & Gallup A.C. (2014). Mate disruption in the water strider, Aquaris remigis. Aquatic Insects 35, 89-97.
  • Gallup A.C. (2014). Abnormal yawning in stroke patients: the role of brain thermoregulation. Frontiers in Autonomic Neuroscience 8, 300.
  • Gallup A.C., Chong A., Kacelnik A., Krebs J.R., & Couzin I.D. (2014). The influence of emotional facial expressions on gaze-following in grouped and solitary pedestrians. Scientific Reports 4, 5794.
  • Massen J.J.M., Dusch, K., Eldakar, O.T., & Gallup, A.C. (2014). A thermal window for yawning in humans: yawning as a brain cooling mechanism. Physiology & Behavior 130, 145-148.
  • Bielert, C.F., & Gallup, A.C. (2014). Mighty Oaks From Little Acorns Grow, A review of Darcia Narvaez, Kristin Valentino, Augustin Fuentes, James J. McKenna and Peter Gray, Ancestral Landscapes in Human Evolution: Culture, Childrearing and Social Wellbeing. Evolutionary Psychology 12, 1053-1055.


  • Bielert C.F., & Gallup A.C. (2013). Congratulations, it’s a health contribution to the literature. A review of Robert Martin, How We Do It: The Evolution and Future of Human Reproduction. Evolutionary Psychology 11, 1059-1061.
  • Gallup A.C., & Gallup J.A. (2013). Frequent yawning as an initial signal of fever relief. Medical Hypotheses 81, 1034-1035.
  • Gallup A.C., & Bielert C.F. (2013). How sidewalk neuroscience illuminates important, yet commonly overlooked and under-appreciated, aspects of human nature. A review of Robert Provine, Curious Behavior. Evolutionary Psychology 11, 818-820.
  • Eldakar O.T., Gallup A.C., & Driscoll W.W. (2013). When hawks give rise to doves: the evolution and transition of enforcement strategies. Evolution 67, 1549-1560.
  • O’Brien D.T., Gallup A.C., & Eldakar O.T. (2013). The influence of real-world resource asymmetries on punishment in economic games. Journal of Social, Evolutionary and Cultural Psychology 7, 3-11.
  • Gallup A.C., & Eldakar O.T. (2013). The thermoregulatory theory of yawning: what we know from 5 years of research. Frontiers in Neuroscience 6, 1-13.


  • Gallup A.C., & Wilson D.S. (2012). Peer aggression and intersexual competition over dating opportunities among adolescent females. In B.C. Guevara and N.A. Becerra (Eds.), Psychology of Aggression: New Research (pp. 165-173). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Gallup A.C. (2012). Could modularity give rise to general-purpose cognitive structures? A review of Robert Kurzban, Why everyone (else) is a hypocrite: Evolution and the modular mind. Journal of Social, Evolutionary and Cultural Psychology 6, 506-510.
  • Gallup A.C., Chong A., & Couzin I.D. (2012). The directional flow of visual information transfer between pedestrians. Biology Letters 8, 520-522.
  • Gallup A.C., Hale J.J., Sumpter D.J.T., Garnier S., Kacelnik A., Krebs J.R., & Couzin I.D. (2012). Visual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109, 7245-7250.
  • Miller M.L., Gallup A.C., Vogel A.R., & Clark A.B. (2012). Auditory disturbances promote temporal clustering of yawning and stretching in small groups of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 126, 324-328.
  • O’Brien D.T., Gallup A.C., & Wilson D.S. (2012). Residential mobility and prosocial development in a single city. American Journal of Community Psychology 50, 26-36.
  • Miller M.L., Gallup A.C., Vogel A.R., Vicario S.M., & Clark A.B. (2012). Evidence for contagious behaviors in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): an observational study on yawning and stretching. Behavioural Processes 89, 264-270.


  • O’Brien D.T., & Gallup A.C. (2011). Using Tinbergen’s four questions (plus one) to facilitate evolution education for humans-oriented disciplines. Evolution: Education and Outreach 4, 107-113.
  • Eldakar O.T., & Gallup A.C. (2011). The group-level consequences of sexual conflict in multigroup populations. PLOS ONE 6, e26451.
  • Gallup A.C., & Hack G.D. (2011). Human paranasal sinuses and selective brain cooling in humans: a ventilation system activated by yawning? Medical Hypotheses 77, 970-973.
  • Gallup A.C., & Eldakar O.T. (2011). Contagious yawning and seasonal climate variation. Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience 3, 1-4.
  • Gallup A.C., O’Brien D.T., & Wilson D.S. (2011). Intrasexual peer aggression and dating behavior during adolescence: an evolutionary perspective. Aggressive Behavior 37, 258-267.
  • Gallup A.C. (2011). Excessive yawning and thermoregulatory dysfunction. Sleep and Breathing 3, 271-273.
  • Gallup A.C. (2011). Could yawning produce selective brain cooling in humans? eLetter on Point-Counterpoint: M.D. White, J.G. Greiner, P.L.L. McDonald, L. Nybo, and N.H. Secher. "Humans do/do not demonstrate selective brain cooling during hyperthermia." Journal of Applied Physiology (
  • Gallup A.C. (2011). The thermoregulatory hypothesis of yawning: time to reconsider terms such as “impossible” and “cannot” and evaluate theories based on evidence. Sleep Medicine 12, 102-103.
  • Gallup A.C., Miller R.R., & Clark A.B. (2011). Changes in ambient temperature trigger yawning but not stretching in rats. Ethology 117, 145-153.
  • Gallup A.C. (2011). Why do we yawn? Primitive versus derived features. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 35, 765-769.


  • Gallup A.C., O’Brien D.T., & Wilson D.S. (2010). The relationship between adolescent peer aggression and responses to a sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma game during college: an explorative study. Journal of Social, Evolutionary and Cultural Psychology 4, 277-289.
  • Shoup-Knox M.L., Gallup A.C., Gallup Jr. G.G., & McNay E.C. (2010). Yawning and stretching predict brain temperature changes in rats: support for the thermoregulatory hypothesis. Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience 2, 1-5.
  • Gallup A.C., O’Brien D.T., White D.D., & Wilson D.S. (2010). Handgrip strength and socially dominant behavior in male adolescents. Evolutionary Psychology 8, 229-243.
  • Miller M.L., Gallup A.C., Vogel A.R., & Clark A.B. (2010). Handling-stress initially inhibits, but then potentiates yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Animal Behaviour 80, 615-619.
  • White D.D., Gallup A.C., & Gallup Jr. G.G. (2010). Indirect peer aggression in adolescence and reproductive behavior. Evolutionary Psychology 8, 49-65.
  • Gallup A.C. (2010). Yawning as a behavioral adaptation to heat stress and water scarcity in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142, 670-671.
  • O’Brien D.T., Geher G., Gallup A.C., Garcia J.R., & Kaufman S.B. (2010). Self-perceived Mating Intelligence predicts sexual behavior in college students: Empirical validation of a theoretical construct. Imagination, Cognition and Personality 29, 341-362.
  • Gallup A.C. (2010). A thermoregulatory behavior. In O. Walusinski (Ed.), The Mystery of Yawning in Physiology and Disease, Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience (28) (pp. 84-89). Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger AG – Medical and Scientific Publishers.
  • Gallup A.C., Gallup Jr. G.G., & Feo C. (2010). Yawning, sleep, and symptom relief in patients with multiple sclerosis. Sleep Medicine 11, 329-330.
  • Gallup A.C., Miller M.L., & Clark A.B. (2010). The direction and range of ambient temperature influences yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 124,133-138.
  • Gallup Jr. G.G., & Gallup A.C. (2010). Excessive yawning and thermoregulation: Two case histories of chronic, debilitating bouts of yawning. Sleep and Breathing 14, 157-159.


  • Gallup A.C., & Wilson D.S. (2009). Body mass index (BMI) and peer aggression in adolescent females: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Social, Evolutionary and Cultural Psychology 3, 356-371.
  • Gallup A.C. (2009). Misconceptions regarding excessive yawning and sleep deprivation. In P. Fulke and S. Vaughan (Eds.), Sleep Deprivation: Causes, Effects, and Treatment (pp. 331-337). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Gallup A.C., & Gallup Jr. G.G. (2009). Venlafaxine-induced excessive yawning: A thermoregulatory connection. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 33, 747.
  • Gallup A.C. & Gallup Jr. G.G. (2009). Medical implications of excessive yawning in relation to thermoregulatory dysfunction. European Journal of Neurology 16, e120.
  • Gallup A.C., Miller M.L., & Clark A.B. (2009). Yawning and thermoregulation: science as an incremental process. Animal Behaviour 78, e3-e5.
  • Gallup A.C., O’Brien D.T., White D.D, & Wilson D.S. (2009). Peer victimization in adolescence has different effects on the sexual behavior of male and female college students. Personality and Individual Differences 46, 611-615.
  • Gallup A.C., Miller M.L. & Clark A.B. (2009). Yawning and thermoregulation in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Animal Behaviour 77, 109-113.


  • Gallup A.C., & Gallup Jr. G.G. (2008). Yawning and thermoregulation. Physiology & Behavior 95, 10-16.


  • Gallup A.C., White D.D., & Gallup Jr. G.G. (2007). Handgrip strength predicts sexual behavior, body morphology, and aggression in male college students. Evolution and Human Behavior 28, 423-429.
  • Gallup A.C., & Gallup Jr. G.G. (2007). Yawning as a brain cooling mechanism: Nasal breathing and forehead cooling diminish the incidence of contagious yawning. Evolutionary Psychology 5, 92-101.


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